2. Assembler Directives

Here’s the order in which the data is placed into the output:

  1. Data and group 3 directives outside sections.
  2. Group 2 directives.
  3. Data and group 3 directives inside sections.
  4. Group 1 directives.
ALL All, GB-Z80, Z80, 6502, 65C02, 65CE02, 6510, 65816, HUC6280, SPC-700, 6800, 6801, 6809, 8008 and 8080 versions apply.
GB Only the GB-Z80 version applies.
GB8 Only the GB-Z80 and 65816 versions apply.
Z80 Only the Z80 version applies.
658 Only the 65816 version applies.
680 Only the 6800, 6801 and 6809 versions apply.
800 Only the 8008 version applies.
808 Only the 8080 version applies.
SPC Only the SPC-700 version applies.
65x Only the 6502, 65C02, 65CE02, 6510, 65816 and HUC6280 versions apply.
!GB Only the Z80, 6502, 65C02, 65CE02, 6510, 65816, HUC6280 and SPC-700 versions apply.

Group 1:

GB .COMPUTEGBCHECKSUM
Z80 .COMPUTESMSCHECKSUM
658 .COMPUTESNESCHECKSUM
Z80 .SDSCTAG 1.0, "DUNGEON MAN", "A wild dungeon exploration game", "Ville Helin"
Z80 .SMSTAG

Group 2:

GB .CARTRIDGETYPE 1
GB .COMPUTEGBCOMPLEMENTCHECK
GB .COUNTRYCODE 1
GB .DESTINATIONCODE 1
ALL .EMPTYFILL $C9
658 .ENDEMUVECTOR
658 .ENDNATIVEVECTOR
658 .ENDSNES
658 .EXHIROM
ALL .EXPORT work_x
658 .FASTROM
GB .GBHEADER
658 .HIROM
GB .LICENSEECODENEW "1A"
GB .LICENSEECODEOLD $1A
658 .LOROM
GB8 .NAME "NAME OF THE ROM"
GB .NINTENDOLOGO
ALL .OUTNAME "other.o"
GB .RAMSIZE 0
GB .ROMDMG
GB .ROMGBC
GB .ROMGBCONLY
GB .ROMSGB
658 .SLOWROM
658 .SMC
Z80 .SMSHEADER
658 .SNESEMUVECTOR
658 .SNESHEADER
658 .SNESNATIVEVECTOR
GB .VERSION 1

Group 3:

65x .16BIT
658 .24BIT
65x .8BIT
658 .ACCU 8
ALL .ADDR 16000, main, 255
ALL .ASC "HELLO WORLD!"
ALL .ASCIITABLE
ALL .ASCSTR "HELLO WORLD!", $A
ALL .ASCTABLE
ALL .ASM
ALL .BACKGROUND "parallax.gb"
ALL .BANK 0 SLOT 1
ALL .BASE $80
ALL .BLOCK "Block1"
ALL .BR
ALL .BREAKPOINT
ALL .BYT 100, $30, %1000, "HELLO WORLD!"
ALL .DATA $ff00, 2
ALL .DB 100, $30, %1000, "HELLO WORLD!"
ALL .DBCOS 0.2, 10, 3.2, 120, 1.3
ALL .DBM filtermacro 1, 2, "encrypt me"
ALL .DBRND 20, 0, 10
ALL .DBSIN 0.2, 10, 3.2, 120, 1.3
ALL .DD $1ffffff, $2000000
ALL .DDM filtermacro 1, 2, 3
ALL .DEF IF $FF0F
ALL .DEFINE IF $FF0F
ALL .DL $102030, $405060
ALL .DLM filtermacro 1, 2, 3
ALL .DS 256, $10
ALL .DSB 256, $10
ALL .DSD 256, $1ffffff
ALL .DSL 16, $102030
ALL .DSTRUCT waterdrop INSTANCEOF water DATA "tingle", 40, 120
ALL .DSW 128, 20
ALL .DW 16000, 10, 255
ALL .DWCOS 0.2, 10, 3.2, 1024, 1.3
ALL .DWM filtermacro 1, 2, 3
ALL .DWRND 20, 0, 10
ALL .DWSIN 0.2, 10, 3.2, 1024, 1.3
ALL .ELSE
ALL .ENDA
ALL .ENDASM
ALL .ENDB
ALL .ENDE
ALL .ENDIF
ALL .ENDM
ALL .ENDME
ALL .ENDR
ALL .ENDRO
ALL .ENDS
ALL .ENDST
ALL .ENDU
ALL .ENUM $C000
ALL .ENUMID ID_1 0
ALL .EQU IF $FF0F
ALL .FAIL "THE EYE OF MORDOR HAS SEEN US!"
658 .FARADDR main, irq_1
ALL .FCLOSE FP_DATABIN
ALL .FOPEN "data.bin" FP_DATABIN
ALL .FREAD FP_DATABIN DATA
ALL .FSIZE FP_DATABIN SIZE
ALL .HEX "a0A0ffDE"
ALL .IF DEBUG == 2
ALL .IFDEF IF
ALL .IFDEFM \2
ALL .IFEQ DEBUG 2
ALL .IFEXISTS "main.s"
ALL .IFGR DEBUG 2
ALL .IFGREQ DEBUG 1
ALL .IFLE DEBUG 2
ALL .IFLEEQ DEBUG 1
ALL .IFNDEF IF
ALL .IFNDEFM \2
ALL .IFNEQ DEBUG 2
ALL .INC "cgb_hardware.i"
ALL .INCBIN "sorority.bin"
ALL .INCDIR "/usr/programming/gb/include/"
ALL .INCLUDE "cgb_hardware.i"
658 .INDEX 8
ALL .INPUT NAME
658 .LONG $102030, $405060
ALL .MACRO TEST
ALL .MEMORYMAP
ALL .NEXTU name
658 .NOWDC
ALL .ORG $150
ALL .ORGA $150
ALL .PRINT "Numbers 1 and 10: ", DEC 1, " $", HEX 10, "\n"
ALL .PRINTT "Here we are...\n"
ALL .PRINTV DEC DEBUG+1
ALL .RAMSECTION "Vars" BANK 0 SLOT 1 ALIGN 256 OFFSET 32
ALL .REDEF IF $F
ALL .REDEFINE IF $F
ALL .REPEAT 6
ALL .REPT 6
ALL .ROMBANKMAP
ALL .ROMBANKS 2
ALL .ROMBANKSIZE $4000
ALL .ROW $ff00, 1, "3"
ALL .SECTION "Init" FORCE
ALL .SEED 123
ALL .SHIFT
ALL .SLOT 1
ALL .STRINGMAP script "Hello\n"
ALL .STRINGMAPTABLE script "script.tbl"
ALL .STRUCT enemy_object
ALL .SYM SAUSAGE
ALL .SYMBOL SAUSAGE
ALL .TABLE byte, word, byte
ALL .UNBACKGROUND $1000 $1FFF
ALL .UNDEF DEBUG
ALL .UNDEFINE DEBUG
ALL .UNION name
658 .WDC
ALL .WORD 16000, 10, 255

Descriptions:

2.1. .16BIT

Analogous to .8BIT. .16BIT forces all addresses and immediate values to be expanded into 16-bit range, when possible, that is:

LSR 11       ; $46 $0B

That would be the case, normally, but after .16BIT it becomes:

LSR 11       ; $4E $0B $00

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.2. .24BIT

Analogous to .8BIT and .16BIT. .24BIT forces all addresses to be expanded into 24-bit range, when possible, that is:

AND $11       ; $25 $11

That would be the case, normally, but after .24BIT it becomes:

AND $11       ; $2F $11 $00 $00

If it is not possible to expand the address into .24BIT range, then WLA tries to expand it into 16-bit range.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.3. .8BIT

There are a few mnemonics that look identical, but take different sized arguments. Here’s a list of such 6502 mnemonics:

ADC, AND, ASL, BIT, CMP, CPX, CPY, DEC, EOR, INC, LDA, LDX, LDY, ORA, ROL, SBC, STA, STX and STY.

For example:

LSR 11       ; $46 $0B
LSR $A000    ; $4E $00 $A0

The first one could also be:

LSR 11       ; $4E $0B $00

.8BIT is here to help WLA to decide to choose which one of the opcodes it selects. When you give .8BIT (default) no 8-bit address/value is expanded to 16-bits.

By default WLA uses the smallest possible size. This is true also when WLA finds a computation it can’t solve right away. WLA assumes the result will be inside the smallest possible bounds, which depends on the type of the mnemonic.

You can also use the fixed argument size versions of such mnemonics by giving the size with the operand (i.e., operand hinting). Here are few examples:

LSR 11.B   ; $46 $0B
LSR 11.W   ; $4E $0B $00

In WLA-65816 .ACCU/.INDEX/SEP/REP override .8BIT/.16BIT/.24BIT when considering the immediate values, so be careful. Still, operand hints override all of these, so use them to be sure.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.4. .ACCU 8

Forces WLA to override the accumulator size given with SEP/REP. .ACCU doesn’t produce any code, it only affects the way WLA interprets the immediate values (8 for 8 bit operands, 16 for 16 bit operands) for opcodes dealing with the accumulator.

So after giving .ACCU 8:

AND #6

will produce $29 $06, and after giving .ACCU 16:

AND #6

will yield $29 $00 $06.

Note that SEP/REP again will in turn reset the accumulator/index register size.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.5. .ADDR 16000, main, 255

.ADDR is an alias for .DW.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.6. .ASC "HELLO WORLD!"

.ASC is an alias for .DB, but if you use .ASC it will remap the characters using the mapping given via .ASCIITABLE.

You can also use ASC(‘?’) to map individual characters in the code

.DB ASC('A'), ASC('B')

and

LD A, ASC(‘A’)

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.7. .ASCIITABLE

.ASCIITABLE’s only purpose is to provide character mapping for .ASC and ASC('?'). Take a look at the example:

.ASCIITABLE
MAP "A" TO "Z" = 0
MAP "!" = 90
.ENDA

Here we set such a mapping that character A is equal to 0, B is equal to 1, C is equal to 2, and so on, and ! is equal to 90.

After you’ve given the .ASCIITABLE, use .ASC to define bytes using this mapping (.ASC is an alias for .DB, but with .ASCIITABLE mapping). For example, .ASC "ABZ" would define bytes 0, 1 and 25 in our previous example.

Note that the following works as well:

.ASCIITABLE
MAP 'A' TO 'Z' = 0
MAP 65 = 90          ; 65 is the decimal for ASCII 'A'
.ENDA

Also note that the characters that are not given any mapping in .ASCIITABLE map to themselves (i.e., 2 maps to 2 in our previous example, etc.).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.8. .ASCSTR "HELLO WORLD!", $A

.ASCSTR is the same as .ASC, but it maps only supplied strings. All given bytes are not touched.:

.ASCSTR "HELLO WORLD!", $A

In this example the string “HELLO WORLD!” is mapped using the mapping given via .ASCIITABLE, but the last byte $A is left as it is.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.9. .ASCTABLE

.ASCTABLE is an alias for .ASCIITABLE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.10. .ASM

Tells WLA to start assembling. Use .ASM to continue the work which has been disabled with .ENDASM. .ASM and .ENDASM can be used to mask away big blocks of code. This is analogous to the ANSI C -comments (/*...*/), but .ASM and .ENDASM can be nested, unlike the ANSI C -counterpart.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.11. .BACKGROUND "parallax.gb"

This chooses an existing ROM image (parallax.gb in this case) as a background data for the project. You can overwrite the data with OVERWRITE sections only, unless you first clear memory blocks with .UNBACKGROUND after which there’s room for other sections as well.

Note that .BACKGROUND can be used only when compiling an object file.

.BACKGROUND is useful if you wish to patch an existing ROM image with new code or data.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.12. .BANK 0 SLOT 1

Defines the ROM bank and the slot it is inserted into in the memory. You can also type the following:

.BANK 0

This tells WLA to move into BANK 0 which will be put into the DEFAULTSLOT of .MEMORYMAP.

Every time you use .BANK, supply .ORG/.ORGA as well, just to make sure WLA calculates addresses correctly.

This is a compulsory directive.

2.13. .BASE $80

Defines the base value for the bank number (used only in 24-bit addresses and when getting a label’s bank number with :). Here are few examples of how to use .BASE (both examples assume the label resides in the first ROM bank):

.BASE $00
label1:
.BASE $80
label2:

  JSL label1   ; if label1 address is $1234, this will assemble into
               ; JSL $001234
  JSL label2   ; label2 is also $1234, but this time the result will be
               ; JSL $801234

.BASE defaults to $00. Note that the address of the label will also contribute to the bank number (bank number == .BASE + ROM bank of the label).

On 65816, use .LOROM, .HIROM or .EXHIROM to define the ROM mode.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.14. .BLOCK "Block1"

Begins a block (called Block1 in the example). These blocks have only one function: to display the number of bytes they contain. When you embed such a block into your code, WLA displays its size when it assembles the source file.

Use .ENDB to terminate a .BLOCK. Note that you can nest .BLOCK s.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.15. .BREAKPOINT

.BREAKPOINT is an alias for .BR.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.16. .BR

Inserts a breakpoint that behaves like a .SYM without a name. Breakpoints can only be seen in WLALINK’s symbol file.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.17. .BYT 100, $30, %1000, "HELLO WORLD!"

.BYT is an alias for .DB.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.18. .CARTRIDGETYPE 1

Indicates the type of the cartridge (mapper and so on). This is a standard Gameboy cartridge type indicator value found at $147 in a Gameboy ROM, and there this one is put to also.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.19. .COMPUTEGBCHECKSUM

When this directive is used WLA computes the ROM checksum found at $14E and $14F in a Gameboy ROM. Note that this directive can only be used with WLA-GB.

Note that you can also write .COMPUTECHECKSUM (the old name for this directive), but it’s not recommended.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.20. .COMPUTEGBCOMPLEMENTCHECK

When this directive is used WLA computes the ROM complement check found at $14D in a Gameboy ROM.

Note that you can still use .COMPUTECOMPLEMENTCHECK (the old name for this directive), but it’s not recommended.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.21. .COMPUTESMSCHECKSUM

When this directive is used WLA computes the ROM checksum found at $7FFA and $7FFB (or $3FFA - $3FFB is the ROM is 16KBs, or $1FFA - $1FFB for 8KB ROMs) in a SMS/GG ROM. Note that this directive can only be used with WLA-z80. Also note that the ROM size must be at least 8KBs. The checksum is calculated using bytes 0x0000 - 0x1FEF/0x3FEF/0x7FEF.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.22. .COMPUTESNESCHECKSUM

When this directive is used WLA computes the SNES ROM checksum and inverse checksum found at $7FDC - $7FDF (LoROM), $FFDC - $FFDF (HiROM) or $40FFDC - $40FFDF and $FFDC - $FFDF (ExHiROM). Note that this directive can only be used with WLA-65816. Also note that the ROM size must be at least 32KB for LoROM images, 64KB for HiROM images and 32.5MBit for ExHiROM.

.LOROM, .HIROM or .EXHIROM must be issued before .COMPUTESNESCHECKSUM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.23. .COUNTRYCODE 1

Indicates the country code located at $14A of a Gameboy ROM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.24. .DATA $ff00, 2

Defines bytes after a .TABLE has been used to define the format. An alternative way of defining bytes to .DB/.DW.

Note that when you use .DATA you can give as many items .TABLE defines. The next time you’ll use .DATA you’ll continue from the point the previous .DATA ended.

Examples:

.TABLE dsw 2, dsb 2

This defines two rows worth of bytes:

.DATA $ff00, $aabb, $10, $20, $1020, $3040, $50, $60

This does the same:

.DATA $ff00, $aabb
.DATA $10, $20
.DATA $1020, $3040
.DATA $50, $60

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.25. .DB 100, $30, %1000, "HELLO WORLD!"

Defines bytes.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.26. .DBCOS 0.2, 10, 3.2, 120, 1.3

Defines bytes just like .DSB does, only this time they are filled with cosine data. .DBCOS takes five arguments.

The first argument is the starting angle. Angle value ranges from 0 to 359.999…, but you can supply WLA with values that are out of the range - WLA fixes them ok. The value can be integer or float.

The second argument descibes the amount of additional angles. The example will define 11 angles.

The third argument is the adder value which is added to the angle value when next angle is calculated. The value can be integer or float.

The fourth and fifth arguments can be seen from the pseudo code below, which also describes how .DBCOS works. The values can be integer or float.

Remember that cos (and sin) here returns values ranging from -1 to 1:

.DBCOS A, B, C, D, E

for (B++; B > 0; B--) {
  output_data((D * cos(A)) + E)
  A = keep_in_range(A + C)
}

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.27. .DBM filtermacro 1, 2, "encrypt me"

Defines bytes using a filter macro. All the data is passed to filtermacro in the first argument, one byte at a time, and the byte that actually gets defined is the value of definition _OUT (_out works as well). The second macro argument holds the offset from the beginning (the first byte) in bytes (the series being 0, 1, 2, 3, …).

Here’s an example of a filter macro that increments all the bytes by one:

.macro increment
.redefine _out \1+1
.endm

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.28. .DBRND 20, 0, 10

Defines bytes, just like .DSB does, only this time they are filled with (pseudo) random numbers. We use the integrated Mersenne Twister to generate the random numbers. If you want to seed the random number generator, use .SEED.

The first parameter (20 in the example) defines the number of random numbers we want to generate. The next two tell the range of the random numbers, i.e. min and max.

Here’s how it works:

.DBRND A, B, C

for (i = 0; i < A; i++)
  output_data((rand() % (C-B+1)) + B);

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.29. .DBSIN 0.2, 10, 3.2, 120, 1.3

Analogous to .DBCOS, but does sin() instead of cos().

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.30. .DD $1ffffff, $2000000

Defines double words (four bytes each). .DD takes only numbers, labels and characters as input, not strings.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.31. .DDM filtermacro 1, 2, 3

Defines 32-bit words using a filter macro. Works just like .DBM, .DWM and .DLM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.32. .DEF IF $FF0F

.DEF is an alias for .DEFINE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.33. .DEFINE IF $FF0F

Assigns a number or a string to a definition label.

By default all defines are local to the file where they are presented. If you want to make the definition visible to all the files in the project, use .EXPORT or add EXPORT to the end of .DEFINE:

.DEFINE ID_0 0 EXPORT

WARNING: Please declare your definition lexically before using it as otherwise the assembler might make incorrect assumptions about its value and size and choose e.g. wrong opcodes and generate binary that doesn’t run properly.

Here are some examples:

.DEFINE X 1000
.DEFINE FILE "level01.bin"
.DEFINE TXT1 "hello and welcome", 1, "to a new world...", 0
.DEFINE BYTES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
.DEFINE COMPUTATION X+1
.DEFINE DEFAULTV

All definitions with multiple values are marked as data strings, and .DB is about the only place where you can later on use them:

.DEFINE BYTES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
.DB 0, BYTES, 6

is the same as:

.DB 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

If you omit the definition value (in our example DEFAULTV), WLA will default to 0.

Note that you must do your definition before you use it, otherwise WLA will use the final value of the definition. Here’s an example of this:

.DEFINE AAA 10
.DB AAA            ; will be 10.
.REDEFINE AAA 11

but:

.DB AAA            ; will be 11.
.DEFINE AAA 10
.REDEFINE AAA 11

You can also create definitions on the command line. Here’s an example of this:

wla-gb -vl -DMOON -DNAME=john -DPRICE=100 -DADDRESS=$100 math.s

MOON’s value will be 0, NAME is a string definition with value john, PRICE’s value will be 100, and ADDRESS’s value will be $100.

Note that:

.DEFINE AAA = 10   ; the same as ".DEFINE AAA 10".

works as well. And this works also:

AAA = 10

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.34. .DESTINATIONCODE 1

.DESTINATIONCODE is an alias for .COUNTRYCODE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.35. .DL $102030, $405060

Defines long words (three bytes each). .DL takes only numbers, labels and characters as input, not strings.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.36. .DLM filtermacro 1, 2, 3

Defines 24-bit words using a filter macro. Works just like .DBM, .DWM and .DDM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.37. .DS 256, $10

.DS is an alias for .DSB.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.38. .DSB 256, $10

Defines 256 bytes of $10.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.39. .DSD 256, $1ffffff

Defines 256 double words (four bytes) of $1ffffff.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.40. .DSL 16, $102030

Defines 16 long words (three bytes) of $102030.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.41. .DSTRUCT waterdrop INSTANCEOF water VALUES

Defines an instance of struct water, called waterdrop, and fills it with the given data. Before calling .DSTRUCT we must have defined the structure, and in this example it could be like:

.STRUCT water
    name   ds 8
    age    db
    weight dw
.ENDST

There are two syntaxes for .DSTRUCT; the new and legacy versions. To use the new syntax, put the keyword “VALUES” at the end of the first line. The old syntax uses the keyword “DATA” or none at all.

The new syntax looks like this:

.DSTRUCT waterdrop INSTANCEOF water VALUES
    name:   .db "tingle"
    age:    .db 40
    weight: .dw 120
.ENDST

The fields can be put in any order. Any omitted fields are set to the .EMPTYFILL value ($00 by default). Any data-defining directive can be used within .DSTRUCT, as long as it does not exceed the size of the data it is being defined for. The only exception is .DSTRUCT itself, which cannot be nested.

The old syntax looks like this:

.DSTRUCT waterdrop INSTANCEOF water DATA "tingle", 40, 120

The DATA and INSTANCEOF keywords are optional. This will assign data for each field of the struct in the order they were defined.

In either example you would get the following labels:

waterdrop
waterdrop.name
waterdrop.age
waterdrop.weight
_sizeof_waterdrop        = 11
_sizeof_waterdrop.name   = 8
_sizeof_waterdrop.age    = 1
_sizeof_waterdrop.weight = 2

The legacy syntax does not support unions; it will give an error if you attempt to define data for a union.

For the new syntax, nested structs are supported like so (assume the water struct is also defined:

.STRUCT drop_pair
    waterdrops: instanceof water 2
.ENDST

.DSTRUCT drops INSTANCEOF drop_pair VALUES
    waterdrops.1:        .db "qwertyui" 40
                         .dw 120
    waterdrops.2.name:   .db "tingle"
    waterdrops.2.age:    .db 40
    waterdrops.2.weight: .dw 12
.ENDST

In this case, the properties of waterdrops.1 were defined implicitly; 8 bytes for the name, followed by a byte for the age, followed by a word for the weight. The values for waterdrops.2 were defined in a more clear way.

In this case, waterdrops and waterdrops.1 are equivalent. waterdrops.1.name is different, even though its address is the same, because it has a size of 8. If you attempted to do this:

.DSTRUCT drops INSTANCEOF drop_pair VALUES
    waterdrops.1.name:   .db "qwertyui" 40
                         .dw 120
.ENDST

It would fail, because only the 8 name bytes are available to be defined in this context, as opposed to the 11 bytes for the entire waterdrops.1 structure.

Named unions can be assigned to in a similar way, by writing its full name with a . separating the union name and the field name.

The struct can be defined namelessly, in which case no labels will be generated, like so:

.DSTRUCT INSTANCEOF drop_pair VALUES
    ...
.ENDST

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.42. .DSW 128, 20

Defines 128 words (two bytes) of 20.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.43. .DW 16000, 10, 255

Defines words (two bytes each). .DW takes only numbers, labels and characters as input, not strings.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.44. .DWCOS 0.2, 10, 3.2, 1024, 1.3

Analogous to .DBCOS (but defines 16-bit words).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.45. .DWM filtermacro 1, 2, 3

Defines 16-bit words using a filter macro. Works just like .DBM, .DLM and .DDM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.46. .DWRND 20, 0, 10

Analogous to .DBRND (but defines words).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.47. .DWSIN 0.2, 10, 3.2, 1024, 1.3

Analogous to .DBCOS (but defines 16-bit words and does sin() instead of cos()).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.48. .ELSE

If the previous .IFxxx failed then the following text until .ENDIF is acknowledged.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.49. .EMPTYFILL $C9

This byte is used in filling the unused areas of the ROM file. EMPTYFILL defaults to $00.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.50. .ENDASM

Tells WLA to stop assembling. Use .ASM to continue the work.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.51. .ENDA

Ends the ASCII table.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .ASCIITABLE or .ASCTABLE are used this one is required to terminate them.

2.52. .ENDB

Terminates .BLOCK.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .BLOCK is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.53. .ENDEMUVECTOR

Ends definition of the emulation mode interrupt vector table.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .SNESEMUVECTOR is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.54. .ENDE

Ends the enumeration.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .ENUM is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.55. .ENDIF

This terminates any .IFxxx directive.

This is not a compulsory directive, but if you use any .IFxxx then you need also to apply this.

2.56. .ENDME

Terminates .MEMORYMAP.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .MEMORYMAP is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.57. .ENDM

Ends a .MACRO.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .MACRO is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.58. .ENDNATIVEVECTOR

Ends definition of the native mode interrupt vector table.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .SNESNATIVEVECTOR is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.59. .ENDRO

Ends the rom bank map.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .ROMBANKMAP is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.60. .ENDR

Ends the repetition.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .REPEAT is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.61. .ENDSNES

This ends the SNES header definition.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .SNESHEADER is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.62. .ENDST

Ends the structure definition.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .STRUCT is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.63. .ENDS

Ends the section.

This is not a compulsory directive, but when .SECTION or .RAMSECTION is used this one is required to terminate it.

2.64. .ENDU

Ends the current union.

2.65. .ENUM $C000

Starts enumeration from $C000. Very useful for defining variables.

To start a descending enumeration, put DESC after the starting value. WLA defaults to ASC (ascending enumeration).

You can also add EXPORT after these if you want to export all the generated definitions automatically.

Here’s an example of .ENUM:

...
.STRUCT mon                ; check out the documentation on
name ds 2                  ; .STRUCT
age  db
.ENDST

.ENUM $A000
_scroll_x DB               ; db  - define byte (byt and byte work also)
_scroll_y DB
player_x: DW               ; dw  - define word (word works also)
player_y: DW
map_01:   DS  16           ; ds  - define size (bytes)
map_02    DSB 16           ; dsb - define size (bytes)
map_03    DSW  8           ; dsw - define size (words)
monster   INSTANCEOF mon 3 ; three instances of structure mon
dragon    INSTANCEOF mon   ; one mon
.ENDE
...

Previous example transforms into following definitions:

.DEFINE _scroll_x      $A000
.DEFINE _scroll_y      $A001
.DEFINE player_x       $A002
.DEFINE player_y       $A004
.DEFINE map_01         $A006
.DEFINE map_02         $A016
.DEFINE map_03         $A026
.DEFINE monster        $A036
.DEFINE monster.1      $A036
.DEFINE monster.1.name $A036
.DEFINE monster.1.age  $A038
.DEFINE monster.2      $A039
.DEFINE monster.2.name $A039
.DEFINE monster.2.age  $A03B
.DEFINE monster.3      $A03C
.DEFINE monster.3.name $A03C
.DEFINE monster.3.age  $A03E
.DEFINE dragon         $A03F
.DEFINE dragon.name    $A03F
.DEFINE dragon.age     $A041

DB, DW, DS, DSB, DSW and INSTANCEOF can also be in lowercase. You can also use a dotted version of the symbols, but it doesn’t advance the memory address. Here’s an example:

.ENUM $C000 DESC EXPORT
bigapple_h db
bigapple_l db
bigapple:  .dw
.ENDE

And this is what is generated:

.DEFINE bigapple_h $BFFF
.DEFINE bigapple_l $BFFE
.DEFINE bigapple   $BFFE
.EXPORT bigapple, bigapple_l, bigapple_h

This way you can generate a 16-bit variable address along with pointers to its parts.

Note that you can also use DL (define long word, a 24-bit value) and DSL (define size, long words) when running wla-65816.

If you want more flexible variable positioning, take a look at .RAMSECTION s.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.66. .ENUMID ID_1 0

.ENUMID will create definitions with an autoincrementing value. For example:

.ENUMID 0
.ENUMID ID_1
.ENUMID ID_2
.ENUMID ID_3

… will create the following definitions:

ID_1 = 0
ID_2 = 1
ID_3 = 2

You can also specify the adder:

.ENUMID 0 STEP 2
.ENUMID MONSTER_ID_1
.ENUMID MONSTER_ID_2
.ENUMID MONSTER_ID_3

… to create definitions:

MONSTER_ID_1 = 0
MONSTER_ID_2 = 2
MONSTER_ID_3 = 4

If you wish to export the definitions automatically, use EXPORT:

.ENUMID 16 STEP 2 EXPORT
.ENUMID MUSIC_1
.ENUMID MUSIC_2
.ENUMID MUSIC_3

… will create the following definitions and export them all:

MUSIC_1 = 16
MUSIC_2 = 18
MUSIC_3 = 20

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.67. .EQU IF $FF0F

.EQU is an alias for .DEFINE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.68. .EXHIROM

With this directive you can define the SNES ROM mode to be ExHiROM. Issuing .EXHIROM will override the user’s ROM bank map when WLALINK computes 24-bit addresses and bank references. If no .HIROM, .LOROM or .EXHIROM are given then WLALINK obeys the banking defined in .ROMBANKMAP.

.EXHIROM also sets the ROM mode bit in $40FFD5 (mirrored in $FFD5).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.69. .EXPORT work_x

Exports the definition work_x to outside world. Exported definitions are visible to all object files and libraries in the linking procedure. Note that you can only export value definitions, not string definitions.

You can export as many definitions as you wish with one .EXPORT:

.EXPORT NUMBER, NAME, ADDRESS, COUNTRY
.EXPORT NAME, AGE

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.70. .FAIL "THE EYE OF MORDOR HAS SEEN US!"

Terminates the compiling process. The string after .FAIL is optional.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.71. .FARADDR main, irq_1

.FARADDR is an alias for .DL.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.72. .FASTROM

Sets the ROM memory speed bit in $FFD5 (.HIROM), $7FD5 (.LOROM) or $FFD5 and $40FFD5 (.EXHIROM) to indicate that the SNES ROM chips are 120ns chips.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.73. .FCLOSE FP_DATABIN

Closes the filehandle FP_DATABIN.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.74. .FOPEN "data.bin" FP_DATABIN

Opens the file data.bin for reading and associates the filehandle with name FP_DATABIN.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.75. .FREAD FP_DATABIN DATA

Reads one byte from FP_DATABIN and creates a definition called DATA to hold it. DATA is an ordinary definition label, so you can .UNDEFINE it.

Here’s an example on how to use .FREAD:

.fopen "data.bin" fp
.fsize fp t
.repeat t
.fread fp d
.db d+26
.endr
.undefine t, d

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.76. .FSIZE FP_DATABIN SIZE

Creates a definition called SIZE, which holds the size of the file associated with the filehandle FP_DATABIN. SIZE is an ordinary definition label, so you can .UNDEFINE it.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.77. .GBHEADER

This begins the GB header definition, and automatically defines .COMPUTEGBCHECKSUM. End the header definition with .ENDGB. Here’s an example:

.GBHEADER
    NAME "TANKBOMBPANIC"  ; identical to a freestanding .NAME.
    LICENSEECODEOLD $34   ; identical to a freestanding .LICENSEECODEOLD.
    LICENSEECODENEW "HI"  ; identical to a freestanding .LICENSEECODENEW.
    CARTRIDGETYPE $00     ; identical to a freestanding .CARTRIDGETYPE.
    RAMSIZE $09           ; identical to a freestanding .RAMSIZE.
    COUNTRYCODE $01       ; identical to a freestanding .COUNTRYCODE/DESTINATIONCODE.
    DESTINATIONCODE $01   ; identical to a freestanding .DESTINATIONCODE/COUNTRYCODE.
    NINTENDOLOGO          ; identical to a freestanding .NINTENDOLOGO.
    VERSION $01           ; identical to a freestanding .VERSION.
    ROMDMG                ; identical to a freestanding .ROMDMG.
                          ; Alternatively, ROMGBC or ROMGBCONLY can be used
.ENDGB

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.78. .HEX "a0A0ffDE"

Defines bytes using the supplied string that contains the bytes in hexadecimal format. For example, the same result can be obtained using .DB

.DB $a0, $A0, $ff, $DE

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.79. .HIROM

With this directive you can define the SNES ROM mode to be HiROM. Issuing .HIROM will override the user’s ROM bank map when WLALINK computes 24-bit addresses and bank references. If no .HIROM, .LOROM or .EXHIROM are given then WLALINK obeys the banking defined in .ROMBANKMAP.

.HIROM also sets the ROM mode bit in $FFD5.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.80. .IF DEBUG == 2

If the condition is fulfilled the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Operands must be immediate values or strings.

The following operators are supported:

< less than
<= less or equal to
> greater than
>= greater or equal to
== equals to
!= doesn’t equal to

All IF directives (yes, including .IFDEF, .IFNDEF, etc) can be nested. They can also be used within ENUM s, RAMSECTION s, STRUCT s, ROMBANKMAP s, and most other directives that occupy multiple lines.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.81. .IFDEF IF

If IF is defined, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.82. .IFDEFM \2

If the specified argument is defined (argument number two, in the example), then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the macro, otherwise it is skipped.

This is not a compulsory directive. .IFDEFM works only inside a macro.

2.83. .IFEQ DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG equals to 2, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.84. .IFEXISTS "main.s"

If main.s file can be found, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.LESE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped.

By writing the following few lines you can include a file if it exists without breaking the compiling loop if it doesn’t exist:

.IFEXISTS FILE
.INCLUDE FILE
.ENDIF

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.85. .IFGR DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG is greater than 2, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.86. .IFGREQ DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG is greater or equal to 2, then the following pieceof code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.87. .IFLE DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG is less than 2, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.88. .IFLEEQ DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG is less or equal to 2, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.89. .IFNDEF IF

If IF is not defined, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.90. .IFNDEFM \2

If the specified argument is not defined, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the macro, otherwise it is skipped.

This is not a compulsory directive. .IFNDEFM works only inside a macro.

2.91. .IFNEQ DEBUG 2

If the value of DEBUG doesn’t equal to 2, then the following piece of code is acknowledged until .ENDIF/.ELSE occurs in the text, otherwise it is skipped. Both arguments can be computations, defines or immediate values.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.92. .INC "cgb_hardware.i"

INC is an alias for INCLUDE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.93. .INCBIN "sorority.bin"

Includes the specified data file into the source file. .INCBIN caches all files into memory, so you can .INCBIN any data file millions of times, but it is loaded from hard drive only once.

You can optionally use SWAP after the file name, e.g.,

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" SWAP

.INCBIN data is divided into blocks of two bytes, and inside every block the bytes are exchanged (like SWAP r does to nibbles). This requires that the size of the file is even.

You can also force WLA to skip n bytes from the beginning of the file by writing for example:

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" SKIP 4

Four bytes are skipped from the beginning of kitten.bin and the rest is incbinned.

It is also possible to incbin only n bytes from a file:

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" READ 10

Will read ten bytes from the beginning of kitten.bin.

You can also force WLA to create a definition holding the size of the file:

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" FSIZE size_of_kitten

Want to circulate all the included bytes through a filter macro? Do this:

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" FILTER filtermacro

The filter macro is executed for each byte of the included data, data byte being the first argument, and offset from the beginning being the second parameter, just like in the case of .DBM, .DWM, .DLM and .DDM.

And you can combine all these four commands:

.INCBIN "kitten.bin" SKIP 10 READ 8 SWAP FSIZE size_of_kitten FILTER filtermacro

This example shows how to incbin eight bytes (swapped) after skipping 10 bytes from the beginning of file kitten.bin, and how to get the size of the file into a definition label size_of_kitten. All the data bytes are circulated through a filter macro.

Here’s an example of a filter macro that increments all the bytes by one:

.macro filtermacro    ; the input byte is \1, the output byte is in "_out"
.redefine _out \1+1
.endm

Note that the order of the extra commands is important.

If the file’s not found in the .INCDIR directory, WLA tries to find it in the current working directory. If the INCDIR is specified in the command line, WLA will first search for the file in that directory. If not found, it will then proceed as aforementioned.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.94. .INCDIR "/usr/programming/gb/include/"

Changes the current include root directory. Use this to specify main directory for the following .INCLUDE and .INCBIN directives. If you want to change to the current working directory (WLA also defaults to this), use:

.INCDIR ""

If the INCDIR is specified in the command line, that directory will be searched before the .INCDIR in the file. If the file is not found, WLA will then silently search the specified .INCDIR.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.95. .INCLUDE "cgb_hardware.i"

Includes the specified file to the source file. If the file’s not found in the .INCDIR directory, WLA tries to find it in the current working directory. If the INCDIR is specified in the command line, WLA will first try to find the file specified in that directory. Then proceed as mentioned before if it is not found.

If you want to prefix all labels inside the included file with something, use:

.INCLUDE "music_player.s" NAMESPACE "musicplayer"

In the case of this example, all sections, macros, labels and references to those labels inside the included file are prefixed with “musicplayer.”, though there are a couple of exceptions. If a .SECTION inside the included file has its own namespace, the .INCLUDE ‘s namespace doesn’t affect it. If a .SECTION inside the included file uses APPENDTO with a section name that starts with "*:", that APPENDTO is considered to belong to the global namespace and we won’t prefix it with the .INCLUDE ‘s namespace.

Note that you can create the file name from pieces:

.INCLUDE ROOTDIR, SUBDIR, "cthulhu.s" NAMESPACE "cthulhu"

This might end up looking for a file “root/subdir/cthulhu.s”, depending on the definitions.

If you are using the .INCLUDE inside a .MACRO and want to have the file included only once, use the keyword ONCE:

.INCLUDE "include_one.s" NAMESPACE "once" ONCE

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.96. .INDEX 8

Forces WLA to override the index (X/Y) register size given with SEP/REP. .INDEX doesn’t produce any code, it only affects the way WLA interprets the immediate values (8 for 8 bit operands, 16 for 16 bit operands) for opcodes dealing with the index registers.

So after giving .INDEX 8

CPX #10

will produce $E0 $A0, and after giving .INDEX 16

CPX #10

will yield $E0 $00 $A0.

Note that SEP/REP again will in turn reset the accumulator/index register size.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.97. .INPUT NAME

.INPUT is much like any Basic-language input: .INPUT asks the user for a value or string. After .INPUT is the variable name used to store the data.

.INPUT works like .REDEFINE, but the user gets to type in the data.

Here are few examples how to use input:

.PRINTT "The name of the ROM? "
.INPUT NAME
.NAME NAME

...

.PRINTT "Give the .DB amount.\n"
.INPUT S
.PRINTT "Give .DB data one at a time.\n"
.REPEAT S
  .INPUT B
  .DB B
.ENDR

...

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.98. .LICENSEECODENEW "1A"

This is a standard new licensee code found at $144 and $145 in a Gameboy ROM, and there this one is put to also. .LICENSEECODENEW cannot be defined with .LICENSEECODEOLD. $33 is inserted into $14B, as well.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.99. .LICENSEECODEOLD $1A

This is a standard old licensee code found at $14B in a Gameboy ROM, and there this one is put to also. .LICENSEECODEOLD cannot be defined with .LICENSEECODENEW.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.100. .LONG $102030, $405060

.LONG is an alias for .DL.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.101. .LOROM

With this directive you can define the SNES ROM mode to be LoROM. Issuing .LOROM will override the user’s ROM bank map when WLALINK computes 24-bit addresses and bank references. If no .HIROM, .LOROM or .EXHIROM are given then WLALINK obeys the banking defined in .ROMBANKMAP.

WLA defaults to .LOROM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.102. .MACRO TEST

Begins a macro called TEST.

You can use \@ inside a macro to e.g., separate a label from the other macro TEST occurrences. \@ is replaced with an integer number indicating the amount of times the macro has been called previously so it is unique to every macro call. \@ can also be used inside strings inside a macro or just as a plain value. Look at the following examples for more information.

You can also type \! to get the name of the source file currently being parsed. \. can be used the same way to get the name of the macro.

Also, if you want to use macro arguments in e.g., calculation, you can type \X where X is the number of the argument. Another way to refer to the arguments is to use their names given in the definition of the macro (see the examples for this).

Remember to use .ENDM to finish the macro definition. Note that you cannot use .INCLUDE inside a macro. Note that WLA’s macros are in fact more like procedures than real macros, because WLA doesn’t substitute macro calls with macro data. Instead WLA jumps to the macro when it encounters a macro call at compile time.

You can call macros from inside a macro. Note that the preprocessor does not expand the macros. WLA traverses through the code according to the macro calls.

Here are some examples:

.MACRO NOPMONSTER
    .REPT 32         ; gives us 32 NOPs
    NOP
    .ENDR
.ENDM

.MACRO LOAD_ABCD
    LD A, \1
    LD B, \2
    LD C, \3
    LD D, :\4        ; load the bank number of \4 into register D.
    NOPMONSTER       ; note that \4 must be a label or ROM address
    LD HL, 1<<\1     ; for this to work...
.INCBIN \5
.ENDM

.MACRO QUEEN

QUEEN\@:
    LD   A, \1
    LD   B, \1
    CALL QUEEN\@

    .DB  "\@", 0     ; will translate into a zero terminated string
                     ; holding the amount of macro QUEEN calls.
    .DB  "\\@", 0    ; will translate into a string containing
                     ; \@.
    .DB  \@          ; will translate into a number indicating
                     ; the amount of macro QUEEN calls.

.ENDM

.MACRO LOAD_ABCD_2 ARGS ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE
    LD A, ONE
    LD B, TWO
    LD C, THREE
    LD D, FOUR
    NOPMONSTER
    LD HL, 1<<ONE
.INCBIN FIVE
.ENDM

.MACRO TEST NARGS 3
    .DB \1, \2, \3
.ENDM

And here’s how they can be used:

NOPMONSTER
LOAD_ABCD $10, $20, $30, XYZ, "merman.bin"
QUEEN 123
LOAD_ABCD_2 $10, $20, $30, XYZ, "merman.bin"
TEST 1, 2, 3

Note that you must separate the arguments with commas.

Here is a special case:

.DEF prev_test $0000

.MACRO .test ARGS str
__\._\@+1:                     ; this will become __.test_1 during
    .PRINT __\._\@+1, "\n"     ; the first call, __.test_2 during the
    .WORD  prev_test           ; second call...
    .REDEF prev_test __\._\@+1
    .BYTE  str.length, str, 0
.ENDM

When creating a label inside a macro, you can add a super simple addition or subtraction after \@ to adjust the value. Only one digit number is supported.

If you want to give names to the macro’s arguments you can do that by listing them in order after supplying ARGS after the macro’s name.

Every time a macro is called a definition NARGS is created. It shows only inside the macro and holds the number of arguments the macro was called with. So don’t have your own definition called NARGS. Here’s an example:

.MACRO LUPIN
  .IF NARGS != 1
    .FAIL
  .ENDIF

  .PRINTT "Totsan! Ogenki ka?\n"
.ENDM

You can also use \? to ask for the type of the argument in the following fashion:

.macro .differentThings
  .if \?1 == ARG_NUMBER
    .db 1
  .endif
  .if \?1 == ARG_STRING
    .db 2
  .endif
  .if \?1 == ARG_LABEL
    .db 3
  .endif
  .if \?1 == ARG_PENDING_CALCULATION
    .db 4
  .endif
.endm

.section "TestingDifferentThings"
TDT1:
    .differentThings 100
    .differentThings "HELLO"
    .differentThings TDT1
    .differentThings TDT1+1
.ends

The previous example will result in .db 1, 2, 3, 4

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.103. .MEMORYMAP

Begins the memory map definition. Using .MEMORYMAP you must first describe the target system’s memory architecture to WLA before it can start to compile the code. .MEMORYMAP gives you the freedom to use WLA to compile data for numerous different real Z80/6502/65C02/65CE02/6510/6800/6801/6809/8008/8080/65816/HUC6280/SPC-700 based systems.

Examples:

.MEMORYMAP
DEFAULTSLOT 0
SLOTSIZE $4000
SLOT 0 $0000
SLOT 1 $4000
.ENDME

.MEMORYMAP
DEFAULTSLOT 0
SLOT 0 $0000 $4000 "ROMSlot"
SLOT 1 $4000 $4000 "RAMSlot"
.ENDME

.MEMORYMAP
DEFAULTSLOT 0
SLOT 0 START $0000 SIZE $4000 NAME "ROMSlot"
SLOT 1 START $4000 SIZE $4000 NAME "RAMSlot"
.ENDME

.MEMORYMAP
DEFAULTSLOT 1
SLOTSIZE $6000
SLOT 0 $0000
SLOTSIZE $2000
SLOT 1 $6000
SLOT 2 $8000
.ENDME

Here’s a real life example from Adam Klotblixt. It should be interesting for all the ZX81 coders:

...

.MEMORYMAP
DEFAULTSLOT 1
SLOTSIZE $2000
SLOT 0 $0000
SLOTSIZE $6000
SLOT 1 $2000
.ENDME

.ROMBANKMAP
BANKSTOTAL 2
BANKSIZE $2000
BANKS 1
BANKSIZE $6000
BANKS 1
.ENDRO

.BANK 1 SLOT 1
.ORGA $2000

...

SLOTSIZE defines the size of the following slots, unless you explicitly specify the size of the slot, like in the second and third examples. You can redefine SLOTSIZE as many times as you wish.

DEFAULTSLOT describes the default slot for banks which aren’t explicitly inserted anywhere. Check .BANK definition for more information.

SLOT defines a slot and its starting address. SLOT numbering starts at 0 and ends to 255 so you have 256 slots at your disposal.

This is a compulsory directive, and make sure all the object files share the same .MEMORYMAP or you can’t link them together.

2.104. .NAME "NAME OF THE ROM"

If .NAME is used with WLA-GB then the 16 bytes ranging from $0134 to $0143 are filled with the provided string. WLA-65816 fills the 21 bytes from $FFC0 to $FFD4 in HiROM and from $7FC0 to $7FD4 in LoROM mode with the name string (SNES ROM title). For ExHiROM the ranges are from $40FFC0 to $40FFD4 and from $FFC0 to $FFD4 (mirrored).

If the string is shorter than 16/21 bytes the remaining space is filled with $00.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.105. .NEXTU name

Proceeds to the next entry in a union.

2.107. .NOWDC

Turns WLA-65816 into a mode where it accepts its default syntax assembly code, which doesn’t support WDC standard. This is the default mode for WLA-65816.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.108. .ORG $150

Defines the starting address. The value supplied here is relative to the ROM bank given with .BANK.

When WLA starts to parse a source file, .ORG is set to $0, but it’s always a good idea to explicitly use .ORG, for clarity.

This is a compulsory directive.

2.109. .ORGA $150

Defines the starting address. The value supplied here is absolute and used directly in address computations. WLA computes the right position in ROM file. By using .ORGA you can instantly see from the source file where the following code is located in the 16-bit memory.

Here’s an example:

.MEMORYMAP
SLOTSIZE $4000
DEFAULTSLOT 0
SLOT 0 $0000
SLOT 1 $4000
.ENDME

.ROMBANKMAP
BANKSTOTAL 2
BANKSIZE $4000
BANKS 2
.ENDRO

.BANK 0 SLOT 1
.ORGA $4000

MAIN:       JP      MAIN

Here MAIN is at $0000 in the ROM file, but the address for label MAIN is $4000. By using .ORGA instead of .ORG, you can directly see from the value the address where you want the code to be as .ORG is just an offset to the SLOT.

2.110. .OUTNAME "other.o"

Changes the name of the output file. Here’s an example:

wla-gb -o test.o test.s

would normally output test.o, but if you had written:

.OUTNAME "new.o"

somewhere in the code WLA would write the output to new.o instead.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.112. .PRINTT "Here we are...\n"

Prints the given text into stdout. Good for debugging stuff. PRINTT takes only a string as argument, and the only supported formatting symbol is \n (line feed).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.113. .PRINTV DEC DEBUG+1

Prints the value of the supplied definition or computation into stdout. Computation must be solvable at the time of printing (just like definitions values). PRINTV takes max two parameters. The first describes the type of the print output. DEC means decimal, HEX means hexadecimal. This is optional. Default is DEC.

Use PRINTV with PRINTT as PRINTV doesn’t print linefeeds, only the result. Here’s an example:

.PRINTT "Value of \"DEBUG\" = $"
.PRINTV HEX DEBUG
.PRINTT "\n"

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.114. .RAMSECTION "Vars" BANK 0 SLOT 1 ALIGN 256 OFFSET 32

RAMSECTION s accept only variable labels and variable sizes, and the syntax to define these is identical to .ENUM (all the syntax rules that apply to .ENUM apply also to .RAMSECTION). Additionally you can embed structures (.STRUCT) into a RAMSECTION. Here’s an example:

.RAMSECTION "Some of my variables" BANK 0 SLOT 1 RETURNORG PRIORITY 100
vbi_counter:   db
player_lives:  db
.ENDS

By default RAMSECTION s behave like FREE sections, but instead of filling any banks RAM sections will occupy RAM banks inside slots. You can fill different slots with different variable labels. It’s recommend that you create separate slots for holding variables (as ROM and RAM don’t usually overlap).

If you want that WLA returns the ORG to what it was before issuing the RAMSECTION, use the keyword RETURNORG.

Keyword PRIORITY means just the same as PRIORITY of a .SECTION, it is used to prioritize some sections when placing them in the output ROM/PRG. The RAMSECTION s with higher PRIORITY are placed first in the output, and if the priorities match, then bigger RAMSECTION s are placed first.

NOTE! Currently WLA-DX assumes that there are 256 RAM banks available for each slot in the memory map. There is no other way to limit this number at the moment than manually keep the BANK number inside real limits.

Anyway, here’s another example:

.MEMORYMAP
SLOTSIZE $4000
DEFAULTSLOT 0
SLOT 0 $0000           ; ROM slot 0.
SLOT 1 $4000           ; ROM slot 1.
SLOT 2 $A000 "RAMSlot" ; variable RAM is here!
.ENDME

.STRUCT game_object
x DB
y DB
.ENDST

.RAMSECTION "vars 1" BANK 0 SLOT 2
moomin1   DW
phantom   DB
nyanko    DB
enemy     INSTANCEOF game_object
.ENDS

.RAMSECTION "vars 2" BANK 1 SLOT "RAMSlot"  ; Here we use slot 2
moomin2   DW
.ENDS

.RAMSECTION "vars 3" BANK 1 SLOT $A000      ; Slot 2 here as well...
moomin3_all .DSB 3
moomin3_a    DB
moomin3_b    DB
moomin3_c    DB
.ENDS

.RAMSECTION "vars 4" BANK 1 SLOT $A000
enemies      INSTANCEOF game_object 2 STARTFROM 0 ; If you leave away "STARTFROM 0" the indexing will start from 1
.ENDS

If no other RAM sections are used, then this is what you will get:

.DEFINE moomin1     $A000
.DEFINE phantom     $A002
.DEFINE nyanko      $A003
.DEFINE enemy       $A004
.DEFINE enemy.x     $A004
.DEFINE enemy.y     $A005
.DEFINE moomin2     $A000
.DEFINE moomin3_all $A002
.DEFINE moomin3_a   $A002
.DEFINE moomin3_b   $A003
.DEFINE moomin3_c   $A004
.DEFINE enemies     $A005
.DEFINE enemies.0   $A005
.DEFINE enemies.0.x $A005
.DEFINE enemies.0.y $A006
.DEFINE enemies.1   $A007
.DEFINE enemies.1.x $A007
.DEFINE enemies.1.y $A008

BANK in .RAMSECTION is optional so you can leave it away if you don’t switch RAM banks, or the target doesn’t have them (defaults to 0).

NOTE! The generated _sizeof_ labels for .RAMSECTION “vars 3” will be:

_sizeof_moomin3_all (== 3)
_sizeof_moomin3_a   (== 1)
_sizeof_moomin3_b   (== 1)
_sizeof_moomin3_c   (== 1)

It is also possible to merge two or more sections using APPENDTO:

.RAMSECTION "RAMSection1" BANK 0 SLOT 0
label1    DB
.ENDS

.RAMSECTION "RAMSection2" APPENDTO "RAMSection1"
label2    DB
.ENDS

If you wist to skip some bytes without giving them labels, use . as a label:

.RAMSECTION "ZERO_PAGE" BANK 0 SLOT 0
UsingThisByte1: DB
.               DB ; RESERVED
.               DB ; RESERVED
UsingThisByte2: DB
.               DB ; RESERVED
UsingThisByte3: DB
.ENDS

If you want to use FORCE RAMSECTIONs that are fixed to a specified address, do as follows:

.RAMSECTION "FixedRAMSection" BANK 0 SLOT 0 ORGA $0 FORCE
.               DB ; SYSTEM RESERVED
.               DB ; SYSTEM RESERVED
PlayerX         DB
PlayerY         DB
.ENDS

Other types that are supported: SEMIFREE and SEMISUBFREE.

Here’s the order in which WLA writes the RAM sections:

  1. FORCE
  2. SEMISUBFREE
  3. SEMIFREE & FREE

NOTE: You can use ORGA to specify the fixed address for a FORCE RAMSECTION. ORG is also supported.

NOTE: When you have RAMSECTION s inside libraries, you must give them BANKs and SLOTs in the linkfile, under [ramsections].

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.115. .RAMSIZE 0

Indicates the size of the RAM. This is a standard Gameboy RAM size indicator value found at $149 in a Gameboy ROM, and there this one is put to also.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.116. .REDEF IF $0F

.REDEF is an alias for .REDEFINE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.117. .REDEFINE IF $0F

Assigns a new value or a string to an old definition. If the definition doesn’t exist, .REDEFINE performs .DEFINE’s work.

When used with .REPT REDEFINE helps creating tables:

.DEFINE CNT 0

.REPT 256
.DB CNT
.REDEFINE CNT CNT+1
.ENDR

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.118. .REPEAT 6

Repeats the text enclosed between .REPEAT x and .ENDR x times (6 in this example). You can use .REPEAT s inside .REPEAT s. x must be bigger or equal than 0.

It’s also possible to have the repeat counter/index in a definition:

.REPEAT 6 INDEX COUNT
.DB COUNT
.ENDR

This would define bytes 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.119. .REPT 6

.REPT is an alias for .REPEAT.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.120. .ROMBANKMAP

Begins the ROM bank map definition. You can use this directive to describe the project’s ROM banks. Use .ROMBANKMAP when not all the ROM banks are of equal size. Note that you can use .ROMBANKSIZE and .ROMBANKS instead of .ROMBANKMAP, but that’s only when the ROM banks are equal in size. Some systems based on a real Z80 chip, 6502/65C02/65CE02/6510/65816/6800/6801/6809/8008/8080/HUC6280/SPC-700 CPUs and Pocket Voice cartridges for Game Boy require the usage of this directive.

Examples:

.ROMBANKMAP
BANKSTOTAL 16
BANKSIZE $4000
BANKS 16
.ENDRO

.ROMBANKMAP
BANKSTOTAL 510
BANKSIZE $6000
BANKS 1
BANKSIZE $2000
BANKS 509
.ENDRO

The first one describes an ordinary ROM image of 16 equal sized banks. The second one defines a 4MB Pocket Voice ROM image. In the PV ROM image the first bank is $6000 bytes and the remaining 509 banks are smaller ones, $2000 bytes each.

BANKSTOTAL tells the total amount of ROM banks. It must be defined prior to anything else.

BANKSIZE tells the size of the following ROM banks. You can supply WLA with BANKSIZE as many times as you wish.

BANKS tells the amount of banks that follow and that are of the size BANKSIZE which has been previously defined.

This is not a compulsory directive when .ROMBANKSIZE and .ROMBANKS are defined.

You can redefine .ROMBANKMAP as many times as you wish as long as the old and the new ROM bank maps match as much as possible. This way you can enlarge the size of the project on the fly.

2.121. .ROMBANKS 2

Indicates the size of the ROM in rombanks. This value is converted to a standard Gameboy ROM size indicator value found at $148 in a Gameboy ROM, and there this one is put into.

This is a compulsory directive unless .ROMBANKMAP is defined.

You can redefine .ROMBANKS as many times as you wish as long as the old and the new ROM bank maps match as much as possible. This way you can enlarge the size of the project on the fly.

2.122. .ROMBANKSIZE $4000

Defines the ROM bank size. Old syntax is .BANKSIZE x.

This is a compulsory directive unless .ROMBANKMAP is defined.

2.123. .ROMDMG

Inserts data into the specific ROM location to mark the ROM as a DMG (Gameboy) ROM ($00 -> $0146). It will only run in DMG mode.

This is not a compulsory directive. .ROMDMG cannot be used with .ROMSGB.

2.124. .ROMGBCONLY

Inserts data into the specific ROM location to mark the ROM as a Gameboy Color ROM ($C0 -> $0143, so ROM name is max. 15 characters long). It will only run in GBC mode.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.125. .ROMGBC

Inserts data into the specific ROM location to mark the ROM as a dual-mode ROM ($80 -> $0143, so ROM name is max. 15 characters long). It will run in either DMG or GBC mode.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.126. .ROMSGB

Inserts data into the specific ROM location to mark the ROM as a Super Gameboy enhanced ROM ($03 -> $0146).

This is not a compulsory directive. .ROMSGB cannot be used with .ROMDMG.

2.127. .ROW $ff00, 1, "3"

Defines bytes after a .TABLE has been used to define the format. An alternative way of defining bytes to .DB/.DW.

Note that when you use .ROW you’ll need to give all the items .TABLE defines, i.e. one full row. To give more or less bytes use .DATA.

Example:

.TABLE word, byte, word
.ROW $aabb, "H", $ddee

This is the same as

.DW $aabb .DB “H” .DW $ddee

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.128. .SDSCTAG 1.0, "DUNGEON MAN", "A wild dungeon exploration game", "Ville Helin"

.SDSCTAG adds SDSC tag to your SMS/GG ROM file. The ROM size must be at least 8KB just like with .COMPUTESMSCHECKSUM and .SMSTAG. For more information about this header take a look at http://www.smspower.org/dev/sdsc/. Here’s an explanation of the arguments:

.SDSCTAG {version number}, {program name}, {program release notes}, {program author}

Note that program name, release notes and program author can also be pointers to strings instead of being only strings (which WLA terminates with zero, and places them into suitable locations inside the ROM file). So:

.SDSCTAG 0.8, PRGNAME, PRGNOTES, PRGAUTHOR
...
PRGNAME:  .DB "DUNGEON MAN", 0
PRGNOTES: .DB "A wild and totally crazy dungeon exploration game", 0
PRGAUTHOR:.DB "Ville Helin", 0

works also. All strings supplied explicitly to .SDSCTAG are placed somewhere in .BANK 0 SLOT 0.:

.SDSCTAG 1.0, "", "", ""
.SDSCTAG 1.0, 0, 0, 0

are also valid, here 0 and "" mean the user doesn’t want to use any descriptive strings. Version number can also be given as an integer, but then the minor version number defaults to zero.

.SDSCTAG also defines .SMSTAG (as it’s part of the SDSC ROM tag specification).

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.129. .SECTION "Init" FORCE

Section is a continuous area of data which is placed into the output file according to the section type and .BANK and .ORG directive values.

The example begins a section called Init. Before a section can be declared, .BANK and .ORG must be used unless WLA is in library file output mode. Library file’s sections must all be FREE ones. .BANK tells the bank number where this section will be later relocated into. .ORG tells the offset for the relocation from the beginning of .BANK.

You can put sections inside a namespace. For instance, if you put a section into a namespace called bank0, then labels in that section can be accessed with bank0.label. This is not necessary inside the section itself. The namespace directive should immediately follow the name:

.SECTION "Init" NAMESPACE "bank0"

You can give the size of the section, if you wish to force the section to some specific size, the following way:

.SECTION "Init" SIZE 100 FREE

It’s possible to force WLALINK to align the FREE, SEMIFREE and SUPERFREE sections by giving the alignment as follows:

.SECTION "Init" SIZE 100 ALIGN 4 FREE

If you need an offset from the alignment, use OFFSET:

.SECTION "Init" SIZE 10 ALIGN 256 OFFSET 32 FREE

And if you want that WLA returns the ORG to what it was before issuing the section, put RETURNORG at the end of the parameter list:

.SECTION "Init" SIZE 100 ALIGN 4 FREE RETURNORG

By default WLA advances the ORG, so, for example, if your ORG was $0 before a section of 16 bytes, then the ORG will be 16 after the section.

Note also that if your section name begins with double underlines (e.g., __UNIQUE_SECTION!!!) the section will be unique in the sense that when WLALINK recieves files containing sections which share the same name, WLALINK will save only the first of them for further processing, all others are deleted from memory with corresponding labels, references and calculations.

If a section name begins with an exclamation mark (!) it tells WLALINK to not to drop it, even if you use WLALINK’s ability to discard all unreferenced sections and there are no references to the section. You can achieve the same effect by adding KEEP to the end of the list:

.SECTION "Init" SIZE 100 ALIGN 4 FREE RETURNORG KEEP

FORCE after the name of the section tells WLA that the section must be inserted so it starts at .ORG. FORCE can be replaced with FREE which means that the section can be inserted somewhere in the defined bank, where there is room. You can also use OVERWRITE to insert the section into the memory regardless of data collisions. Using OVERWRITE you can easily patch an existing ROM image just by .BACKGROUND’ing the ROM image and inserting OVERWRITE sections into it. SEMIFREE sections are also possible and they behave much like FREE sections. The only difference is that they are positioned somewhere in the bank starting from .ORG. SEMISUBFREE sections on the other hand are positioned somewhere in the bank starting from $0 and ending to .ORG.

SUPERFREE sections are also available, and they will be positioned into the first suitable place inside the first suitable bank (candidates for these suitable banks have the same size with the slot of the section, no other banks are considered). You can also leave away the type specifier as the default type for the section is FREE.

You can name the sections as you wish, but there is one special name. A section called BANKHEADER is placed in the front of the bank where it is defined. These sections contain data that is not in the memory map of the machine, so you can’t refer to the data of a BANKHEADER section, but you can write references to outside. So no labels inside BANKHEADER sections. These special sections are useful when writing e.g., MSX programs. Note that library files don’t take BANKHEADER sections.

Here’s an example of a BANKHEADER section:

.BANK 0
.ORG 0
.SECTION "BANKHEADER"
    .DW MAIN
    .DW VBI
.ENDS

.SECTION "Program"
MAIN: CALL MONTY_ON_THE_RUN
VBI:  PUSH HL
      ...
      POP HL
      RETI
.ENDS

Here’s an example of an ordinary section:

.BANK 0
.ORG $150
.SECTION "Init" FREE PRIORITY 1000
        DI
        LD  SP, $FFFE
        SUB A
        LD  ($FF00+R_IE), A
.ENDS

This tells WLA that a FREE section called Init must be located somewhere in bank 0 and it has a sorting PRIORITY of 1000. If you replace FREE with SEMIFREE the section will be inserted somewhere in the bank 0, but not in the $0 - $14F area. If you replace FREE with SUPERFREE the section will be inserted somewhere in any bank with the same size as bank 0.

Here’s the order in which WLA writes the sections:

  1. FORCE
  2. SEMISUBFREE
  3. SEMIFREE & FREE
  4. SUPERFREE
  5. OVERWRITE

Before the sections are inserted into the output file, they are sorted by priorities, so that the section with the highest priority is processed first. If priorities are the same, then the size of the section matters, and bigger sections are processed before smaller ones. The default PRIORITY, when not explicitly given, is 0.

You can also create a RAM section. For more information about them, please read the .RAMSECTION directive explanation.

It is also possible to merge two or more sections using APPENDTO:

.SECTION "Base"
.DB 0
.ENDS

.SECTION "AppendToBase" FREE RETURNORG APPENDTO "Base"
.DB 1
.ENDS

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.130. .SEED 123

Seeds the random number generator.

This is not a compulsory directive. The random number generator is initially seeded with the output of time(), which is, according to the manual, the time since the Epoch (00:00:00 UTC, January 1, 1970), measured in seconds. So if you don’t .SEED the random number generator yourself with a constant value, .DBRND and .DWRND give you different values every time you run WLA.

In WLA DX 9.4a and before we used the stdlib’s srand() and rand() functions making the output differ on different platforms. Since v9.4 WLA DX contains its own Mersenne Twister pseudo random number generator.

2.131. .SHIFT

Shifts the macro arguments one down (\2 becomes \1, \3 -> \2, etc.). .SHIFT can thus only be used inside a .MACRO.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.132. .SLOT 1

Changes the currently active memory slot. This directive is meant to be used with SUPERFREE sections, where only the slot number is constant when placing the sections.

You can use the number, address or name of the slot here:

.SLOT 1           ; Use slot 1.
.SLOT $2000       ; Use a slot with starting address of $2000.
.SLOT "SlotOne"   ; Use a slot with a name "SlotOne"

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.133. .SLOWROM

Clears the ROM memory speed bit in $FFD5 (.HIROM), $7FD5 (.LOROM) or $FFD5 and $40FFD5 (.EXHIROM) to indicate that the SNES ROM chips are 200ns chips.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.134. .SMC

Forces WLALINK to compute a proper SMC header for the ROM file.

SMC header is a chunk of 512 bytes. WLALINK touches only its first three bytes, and sets the rest to zeroes. Here’s what will be inside the first three bytes:

Byte Description
0 low byte of 8KB page count.
1 high byte of 8KB page count.
2
  • Bit 7: 0
  • Bit 6: 0
  • Bit 5: 0 = LoROM, 1 = HiROM
  • Bit 4: 0 = LoROM, 1 = HiROM
  • Bit 3 and 2: SRAM size (00 = 256Kb, 01 = 64Kb, 10 = 16Kb, 11 = 0Kb)
  • Bit 1: 0
  • Bit 0: 0

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.135. .SMSHEADER

All the fields in .SMSHEADER are optional and default to zero except ROMSIZE. If ROMSIZE is not specified it will be calculated automatically:

.SMSHEADER
    PRODUCTCODE 26, 70, 2 ; 2.5 bytes
    VERSION 1             ; 0-15
    REGIONCODE 4          ; 3-7
    RESERVEDSPACE 0, 0    ; 2 bytes
    ROMSIZE 0             ; 0-15
.ENDSMS

The REGIONCODE also defines the system:

3 SMS Japan
4 SMS Export
5 GG Japan
6 GG Export
7 GG International

When .SMSHEADER is defined, also the checksum is calculated, and TMR SEGA, two reserved bytes and ROM size are defined.

See http://www.smspower.org/Development/ROMHeader for more information about SMS header.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.136. .SMSTAG

.SMSTAG forces WLA to write an ordinary SMS/GG ROM tag to the ROM file. Currently only the string TMR SEGA and ROM checksum are written (meaning that .SMSTAG also defines .COMPUTESMSCHECKSUM). The ROM size must be at least 8KBs.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.137. .SNESEMUVECTOR

Begins definition of the emulation mode interrupt vector table:

.SNESEMUVECTOR
COP    COPHandler
UNUSED $0000
ABORT  BRKHandler
NMI    VBlank
RESET  Main
IRQBRK IRQBRKHandler
.ENDEMUVECTOR

These can be defined in any order, but they will be placed into memory starting at $7FF4 ($FFF4 in HiROM, $40FFF4 and $FFF4 in ExHiROM) in the order listed above. All the vectors default to $0000.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.138. .SNESHEADER

This begins the SNES header definition, and automatically defines .COMPUTESNESCHECKSUM. From here you may define any of the following:

  • ID "ABCD" - inserts a one to four letter string starting at $7FB2 (lorom) or $FFB2 (hirom).

  • NAME "Hello World!" - identical to a freestanding .NAME.

  • LOROM - identical to a freestanding .LOROM.

  • HIROM - identical to a freestanding .HIROM.

  • EXHIROM - identical to a freestanding .EXHIROM.

  • SLOWROM - identical to a freestanding .SLOWROM.

  • FASTROM - identical to a freestanding .FASTROM.

  • CARTRIDGETYPE $00 - Places the given 8-bit value in $7FD6 ($FFD6 in HiROM, $40FFD6 and $FFD6 in ExHiROM). Some possible values I’ve come across but cannot guarantee the accuracy of:

    $00 ROM    
    $01 ROM RAM  
    $02 ROM SRAM  
    $03 ROM   DSP1
    $04 ROM RAM DSP1
    $05 ROM SRAM DSP1
    $13 ROM   Super FX
  • ROMSIZE $09 - Places the given 8-bit value in $7FD7 ($FFD7 in HiROM, $40FFD7 and $FFD7 in ExHiROM). Possible values include (but may not be limited to):

    $08 2 Megabits
    $09 4 Megabits
    $0A 8 Megabits
    $0B 16 Megabits
    $0C 32 Megabits
  • SRAMSIZE $01 - Places the given 2-bit value into $7FD8 ($FFD8 in HiROM, $40FFD8 and $FFD8 in ExHiROM). I believe these are the only possible values:

    $00 0 kilobits
    $01 16 kilobits
    $02 32 kilobits
    $03 64 kilobits
  • COUNTRY $00 - Places the given 8-bit value into $7FD9 ($FFD9 in HiROM, $40FFD9 and $FFD9 in ExHiROM). $00 is Japan and $01 is the United States, and there several more for other regions that I cannot recall off the top of my head.

  • LICENSEECODE $00 - Places the given 8-bit value into $7FDA ($FFDA in HiROM, $40FFDA and $FFDA in ExHiROM). You must find the legal values yourself as there are plenty of them. ;)

  • VERSION $01 - Places the given 8-bit value into $7FDB ($FFDB in HiROM, $40FFDB and $FFDB in ExHiROM). This is supposedly interpreted as version 1.byte, so a $01 here would be version 1.01.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.139. .SNESNATIVEVECTOR

Begins definition of the native mode interrupt vector table:

.SNESNATIVEVECTOR
COP    COPHandler
BRK    BRKHandler
ABORT  ABORTHandler
NMI    VBlank
UNUSED $0000
IRQ    IRQHandler
.ENDNATIVEVECTOR

These can be defined in any order, but they will be placed into memory starting at $7FE4 ($FFE4 in HiROM, $40FFE4 and $FFE4 in ExHiROM) in the order listed above. All the vectors default to $0000.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.140. .STRINGMAP script "Hello\n"

.ASC is an alias for .DB, but if you use .ASC it will remap the characters using the mapping given via .ASCIITABLE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.141. .STRINGMAPTABLE script "script.tbl"

.STRINGMAPTABLE’s only purpose is to provide string mapping for .STRINGMAP. Take a look at the example:

.STRINGMAPTABLE script "script.tbl"

This will load the file “script.tbl” and define a new string mapping called “script”. This file is in the “table file” format commonly used for game translations; take a look at an example of one:

00=A
01=B
; This is a comment
ff01=
ff02=いうえ
fe=\n

The values to the left of the ‘=’ are a variable number of bytes expressed in hex, which map to the text value on the right. Note that depending on the text encoding of the file, this may be a variable number of bytes too. Thus this is a more flexible version of .ASCIITABLE.

After you’ve given the .STRINGMAPTABLE, use .STRINGMAP to define bytes using this mapping. For example:

.STRINGMAP script, "いうえA\n"

This will map to the byte values FF 02 00 FE, provided the source file and TBL file use the same string encoding - use of UTF-8 is advised.

Note that all characters must be defined in the mapping - there is no fallback to ASCII encoding. You also cannot mix in byte values like with .DB and .ASC.

You can define multiple named string map tables.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.142. .STRUCT enemy_object

Begins the definition of a structure. These structures can be placed inside RAMSECTION s and ENUM s. Here’s an example:

.STRUCT enemy_object
id      dw             ; the insides of a .STRUCT are 1:1 like in .ENUM
x       db             ; except that no structs inside structs are
y       db             ; allowed.
data    ds  10
info    dsb 16
stats   dsw  4
.ENDST

This also creates a definition _sizeof_[struct name], in our example this would be _sizeof_enemy_object, and the value of this definition is the size of the object, in bytes (2+1+1+10+16+4*2 = 38 in the example).

You’ll get the following definitions as well:

enemy_object.id    (== 0)
enemy_object.x     (== 2)
enemy_object.y     (== 3)
enemy_object.data  (== 4)
enemy_object.info  (== 14)
enemy_object.stats (== 30)

After defining a .STRUCT you can create an instance of it in a .RAMSECTION / .ENUM by typing:

<instance name> INSTANCEOF <struct name> [optional, the number of structures]

Here’s an example:

.RAMSECTION "enemies" BANK 4 SLOT 4
enemies   INSTANCEOF enemy_object 4
enemyman  INSTANCEOF enemy_object
enemyboss INSTANCEOF enemy_object
.ENDS

This will create definitions like enemies, enemies.1.id, enemies.1.x, enemies.1.y and so on. Definition enemies is followed by four enemy_object instances. After those four come enemyman and enemyboss instances, but as they are single instances, their definitions lack the index: enemyman, enemyman.id, enemyman.x, enemyman.y and so on.

Take a look at the documentation on .RAMSECTION & .ENUM, they have more examples of how you can use .STRUCT s.

A WORD OF WARNING: Don’t use labels b, B, w and W inside a structure as e.g., WLA sees enemy.b as a byte sized reference to enemy. All other labels should be safe:

lda enemy1.b  ; load a byte from zeropage address enemy1 or from the address
              ; of enemy1.b??? i can't tell you, and WLA can't tell you...

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.143. .SYM SAUSAGE

WLA treats symbols (SAUSAGE in this example) like labels, but they only appear in the symbol files WLALINK outputs. Useful for finding out the location where WLALINK puts data.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.144. .SYMBOL SAUSAGE

.SYMBOL is an alias for .SYM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.145. .TABLE byte, word, byte

Defines table’s columns. With .DATA and .ROW you can define data much like using .DB or .DW, but .TABLE makes it convenient to feed big amounts of data in mixed format.

For example:

.TABLE byte, word, byte

After the columns have been defined, you can define rows using e.g.,

.ROW $01, $0302, $04

This is the same as:

.DB $01
.DW $0302
.DB $04

Note that .DATA can also be used instead of .ROW, if one wants to give the data in pieces.

All supported column formats:
  • DB, BYT, BYTE
  • DW, WORD, ADDR
  • DL, LONG, FARADDR ; wla-65816 only
  • DS, DSB
  • DSW
  • DSL ; wla-65816 only

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.146. .UNBACKGROUND $1000 $1FFF

After issuing .BACKGROUND you might want to free some parts of the backgrounded ROM image for e.g., FREE sections. With .UNBACKGROUND you can define such regions. In the example a block starting at $1000 and ending at $1FFF was released (both ends included). You can issue .UNBACKGROUND as many times as you wish.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.147. .UNDEF DEBUG

.UNDEF is an alias for .UNDEFINE.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.148. .UNDEFINE DEBUG

Removes the supplied definition label from system. If there is no such label as given no error is displayed as the result would be the same.

You can undefine as many definitions as you wish with one .UNDEFINE:

.UNDEFINE NUMBER, NAME, ADDRESS, COUNTRY
.UNDEFINE NAME, AGE

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.149. .UNION name

Begins a “union”. This can only be used in enums, ramsections, and structs.

When entering a union, the current address in the enum is saved, and the following data is processed as normal. When the .NEXTU directive is encountered, the address is reverted back to the start of the union. This allows one to assign an area of memory to multiple labels:

.ENUM $C000
    .UNION
        pos_lowbyte:  db
        pos_highbyte: db
        extra_word:   dw
    .NEXTU
        pos:          dw
    .ENDU
    after: db
.ENDE

This example is equivalent to:

.DEFINE pos_lowbyte  $c000
.DEFINE pos_highbyte $c001
.DEFINE extra_word   $c002
.DEFINE pos          $c000
.DEFINE after        $c004

The .UNION and .NEXTU commands can be given an argument to assign a prefix to the labels that follow:

.ENUM $C000
    .UNION union1
        byte1: db
        byte2: db
    .NEXTU union2
        word1: dw
    .ENDU
.ENDE

This example is equivalent to:

.DEFINE union1.byte1 $c000
.DEFINE union1.byte2 $c001
.DEFINE union2.word1 $c000

Unions can be nested.

2.150. .VERSION 1

Indicates the Mask ROM version number located at $14C of a Gameboy ROM.

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.151. .WDC

Turns WLA-65816 into a mode where it accepts WDC standard assembly code, in addition to WLA’s own syntax. In WDC standard mode:

AND <x  ; 8-bit
AND |?  ; 16-bit
AND >&  ; 24-bit

are the same as:

AND x.b ; 8-bit
AND ?.w ; 16-bit
AND &.l ; 24-bit

in WLA’s own syntax. Beware of the situations where you use ‘<’ and ‘>’ to get the low and high bytes!

This is not a compulsory directive.

2.152. .WORD 16000, 10, 255

.WORD is an alias for .DW.

This is not a compulsory directive.